1564: Death of the Protestant religious reformer Jean Calvin at the age of 54.
1679: The Habeas Corpus Act (strengthening a person’s right to challenge unlawful arrest and imprisonment) is passed in England.
1703: Russian Tsar Peter the Great founds Saint Petersburg (Leningrad).
1837: Birth of Wild Bill Hickok (James Butler) in Illinois.
1840: Death of composer and violin virtuoso Niccolo Paganini at the age of 57.
1883: Tsar Alexander III is crowned in Moscow.
1905: The Japanese fleet destroys the Russian East Sea Fleet in the Battle of Tsushima.
1907: The bubonic plague breaks out in San Francisco.
1921: Afghanistan gains sovereignty after 84 years of British control.
1930: Richard Drew invents masking tape. On the same day, the Chrysler Building in New York, the tallest man-made structure at the time, opens to the public.
1936: The Queen Mary leaves Southampton for New York on her maiden voyage.
1937: The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco is opened to pedestrians.
1940: British and Allied forces begin the evacuation of Dunkirk during World War II. On the same day, 97 soldiers from a unit of the Royal Norfolk Regiment were shot after surrendering to German troops.
1941: The German battleship Bismarck is sunk by a British naval force.
1942: Hitler orders the death of 10,000 Czechs after Reinhard Heydrich is shot and mortally wounded by rebels in Prague.
1944: Premiere in Paris of “Huis Clos” by Jean-Paul Sartre.
1951: Dundee’s Billie Steel becomes the first player to be sent off while playing for Scotland in retaliation in the 82nd minute of a moody 4-0 loss to Austria in Vienna.
1960: A military coup overthrows the Turkish government.
1963: Jomo Kenyatta’s Union of African Nations of Kenya wins the country’s first general election.
1964: Jawaharlal Nehru, prime minister and founder of modern India, dies suddenly at the age of 74.
1967: Australians vote in favor of a constitutional referendum granting the Australian government the power to make laws in favor of Indigenous Australians and count them in the national census.
1969: Beginning of the construction of Walt Disney World in Florida.
1970: A British expedition climbs the south face of Annapurna I in the Himalayas.
1971: “The Go-Between” directed by Joseph Losey wins the Grand Prix of the International Film Festival at the Cannes Film Festival.
1973: Singles Chart:
- See My Baby Jive – Wizzard
- Can The Can – Suzi Quatro
- And I love you so much – Perry Como
- One and one is one – Medicine Head
- Hellraiser – The Sweet
- Tie a yellow ribbon around the old oak tree – Dawn ft Tony Orlando
- You are the sunshine of my life – Stevie Wonder
- Also Sprach Zarathustra – Deodato
- Broken on the Wild Side – Lou Reed
Ranking of albums:
- Aladdin Sané – David Bowie
- Pure Gold – Various Artists
- 20 Fantastic Hits Volume 3 – Various Artists
- The Beatles 1967-1970 – The Beatles
- The Beatles 1962-1966 – The Beatles
- Red Rose Speedway – Wings
- Alone Together – Donny Osmond
- Daltrey – Roger Daltrey
- Liza with AZ – Liza Minelli
- Never Never Never – Shirley Bassey
1975: A bus full of elderly women plunges into Dibble’s Bridge Yorkshire, killing 38 people. On the same day, former heavyweight boxing champion Ezzard Charles died of ALS at the age of 53.
1981: Liverpool beat Real Madrid 1-0 and won the European Cup in Paris.
1985: Britain agrees to return Hong Kong to China in 1997.
1988: The US Senate ratifies a treaty eliminating medium-range nuclear missiles.
1990: The Stone Roses play at Spike Island, Widnes, to a crowd of 30,000.
1993: The Mafia bombs the Uffizi museum in Florence, killing six people.
1994: Dissident writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn returns to his native Russia after 20 years in exile.
1995: Actor Christopher Reeve is paralyzed from the neck down after falling from his horse during a riding competition in Virginia.
1997: Liam Gallagher is left with cuts and bruises after a fight with a youth at the Tower Thistle Hotel in east London. On the same day, 20 British women become the first all-female team to reach the North Pole.
1999: The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia indicts Slobodan Milosevic and four others for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Kosovo.
2000: Paula Yates receives £400,000 in an out-of-court settlement from the estate of the late Michael Hutchence.
2003: Angelina Jolie divorces Billy Bob Thornton.
2006: An earthquake hits Java, killing 6,500 people.
2008: Sir Paul McCartney receives an honorary doctorate in music from Yale University.
2009: Barcelona beat Manchester United 2-0 to win the Champions League in Rome.
2011: Writer/singer/poet Gill Scott-Heron dies aged 62.
2012: A NATO airstrike kills a family of eight, including six children, in Afghanistan.
2017: Arsenal beat Chelsea 2-1 to win the FA Cup, making Arsene Wenger the most successful manager in the history of the tournament. On the same day, Gregg Allman of the Allman Brothers Band died at the age of 69 in Savannah, Georgia.
2019: Elections to the European Parliament result in the loss of the majority of centralist parties, with the Liberals, Greens and Nationalists garnering more votes.
2021: Argentinian television Chanel 26 mistakenly reports the death of English playwright William Shakespeare after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine.
BIRTHDAYS: Henry Kissinger, former US Secretary of State, 99; Ramsey Lewis, pianist/composer, 87; Louis Gossett Jr, actor, 86; Richard Schiff, actor, 67; Siouxsie Sioux (Susan Ballion), singer-songwriter (Siouxsie and the Banshees), 65; Duncan Goodhew, swimmer, 65; Neil Finn, guitarist/singer-songwriter (Crowded House/Split Enz) 64; Pat Cash, tennis champion, 57; Edwin Poots, DUP, 57; Sean Kinney, drummer (Alice In Chains) 56; Heston Blumenthal, cook, 56; Paul Gascoigne, footballer, 55 years old; Eddie McClintock, actor, 55; Joseph Fiennes, actor, 52; Tim Farron, politician, 52; Lee Sharpe, footballer, 51; Paul Bettany, actor, 51 years old; Denise van Outen, TV personality, 48; Dr Dre (Andre Benjamin) rapper, 47; Jamie Oliver, chef/broadcaster, 47; André 3000 (Benjamin), singer-songwriter, 47 years old; Jeff Brazier, TV presenter, 43; Rachel Parris, actress, 38 years old.